Chromium and Biotin

Nuturna Advanced Diabetes Support Formula
Diabetes Nutrition Study Data: Chromium Picolinate and Biotin


There is increasing clinical evidence that diabetics who take the B vitamin Biotin and the essential trace mineral Chromium Picolinate had better blood sugar control.

Researchers from Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut, recruited 43 overweight or obese type 2 diabetics with poorly controlled blood sugar who were taking, but not responding well to, oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs.

Participants took Biotin and Chromium or a placebo for four weeks. Researchers tested blood sugar control at the start and end of the study and found that those who had taken biotin and chromium picolinate had an average 9.7% decrease in glucose levels.  

Participants reported no significant side effects. Doctors concluded that for people with poorly controlled diabetes, biotin combined with chromium picolinate may be an effective complementary therapy that may also help lower blood-fat levels.
Reference: Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006 Dec;8(6):636-43.


The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial.

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of chromium picolinate and biotin significantly enhances glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and enhances glucose disposal. The present pilot study was conducted to determine if supplementation with chromium picolinate and biotin can improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with suboptimal glycemic control despite use of oral antihyperglycemic agents.

METHODS: Forty-three subjects with impaired glycemic control (2-h glucose >200 mg/dL; glycated hemoglobin >or=7%), despite treatments with oral antihyperglycemic agents, were randomized to receive 600 microg of chromium as chromium picolinate and biotin (2 mg/day) (Diachrome(, Nutrition 21, Inc., Purchase, NY) in addition to their prestudy oral antihyperglycemic agent therapy. Measurements of glycemic control and blood lipids were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks.

RESULTS: After 4 weeks, there was a significantly greater reduction in the total area under the curve for glucose during the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test for the treatment group (mean change -9.7%) compared with the placebo group (mean change +5.1%, P < 0.03). Significantly greater reductions were also seen in fructosamine (P < 0.03), triglycerides (P < 0.02), and triglycerides/ high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05) in the treatment group. No significant adverse events were attributed to chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation.

CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that supplementation with a combination of chromium picolinate and biotin in poorly controlled patients with diabetes receiving antidiabetic therapy improved glucose management and several lipid measurements. Chromium picolinate/ biotin supplementation may represent an effective adjunctive nutritional therapy to people with poorly controlled diabetes with the potential for improving lipid metabolism.

Singer GM, Geohas J.
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8017, USA.
Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006 Dec;8(6):636-43.


Effects of Chromium Picolinate/Biotin Supplementation with Diabetes Education on Blood Sugar Levels in Type 2 Diabetes

Aims: To determine the effects of diabetes education in combination with chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: An open labeled, 12-week controlled study was conducted to determine the effects of diabetes education with the combination of chromium picolinate (CP) with biotin supplementation on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and PPG levels in people with type 2 DM (N = 23) who were on prescribed oral medications for a least the previous 6 months, HbA1c>7%, and at least a one-year history of type 2 DM.   These subjects received a combination of CP (300mcgCR) and biotin (150mcg) twice daily for 3 months.  Baseline glucose values were compared to glucose levels at 15 days, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days treatment.  Risk factors such as blood pressure, smoking, family history, exercise and body mass index (BMI) were recorded.

Results: Patients given diabetes education and taking the dietary supplement showed a significant decrease in PPG (p<0.01) and FBG (p<0.05) levels at the end of the 3 months supplementation.  No significant changes were observed in the BMI and blood pressure.

Conclusion:  The combination of diabetes education with CP and biotin supplementation is efficacious, and likely useful as a nutritional adjuvant with hypoglycemic medications to help lower elevated blood glucose levels in individuals with diabetes.

Vijaya Juturu, PhD
James R. Komorowski, MS
The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2007, Volume 3, Number 1


Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables.

Seventy-six normal, free-living subjects were given supplements of 200 micrograms chromium (Cr) in the form of chromic chloride or a placebo in a double-blind crossover study with 3-month experimental periods. Twenty of the 76 subjects had serum glucose concentrations greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL 90 minutes after a glucose challenge (1 g glucose per kilogram of body weight). Chromium supplementation significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) the 90-minute glucose concentration of these subjects from 135 +/- 9 to 116 +/- 11 mg/dL; fasting glucose concentrations also decreased significantly. The 90-minute serum glucose levels of the 35 subjects with glucose concentrations less than the fasting serum glucose level were increased significantly by Cr supplementation, from 71 +/- 1 to 81 +/- 4 mg/dL. Fasting and 90-minute serum glucose concentrations of the remaining subjects who displayed 90-minute glucose concentrations greater than fasting levels but less than 100 mg/dL were not affected by Cr supplementation. In this study, immunoreactive serum insulin concentration, body weight, lipids, and other selected clinical variables did not change significantly during Cr supplementation. These data demonstrate that Cr supplementation decreases the serum glucose levels of subjects with 90-minute glucose concentrations greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL following a glucose challenge, increases serum glucose levels of subjects with 90-minute glucose concentrations less than fasting levels, and has no effect on the serum glucose levels of subjects with 90-minute glucose values similar to but greater than fasting levels.

Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Roginski EE, Mertz W, Glinsmann W.
Metabolism. 1983 Sep;32(9):894-9.


Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium.

Chromium (Cr) improves the glucose/insulin system in subjects with hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes and hyperlipemia with no detectable effects on control subjects. Chromium improves insulin binding, insulin receptor number, insulin internalization, beta cell sensitivity and insulin receptor enzymes with overall increases in insulin sensitivity. There have been several studies involving Cr supplementation of subjects with NIDDM and/or lipemia and most have reported beneficial effects of Cr on the glucose/insulin system. In a recent study, Chinese subjects with NIDDM were divided into three groups of 60 subjects and supplemented with placebo, 100 or 500 micrograms of Cr as chromium picolinate 2 times per day for 4 months. Improvements in the glucose/insulin system were highly significant in the subjects receiving 500 micrograms twice per day with less or no significant improvements in the subjects receiving 100 micrograms twice per day after 2 and 4 months. In summary, Cr is involved in the control of the glucose/insulin system and the amount, and likely form of chromium, are critical when evaluating the role of chromium in this system.

Anderson RA.
Journal American College of Nutrition 1997 Oct;16(5):404-10.
Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.


Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The chromium requirement is postulated to increase with increased glucose intolerance and diabetes. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the elevated intake of supplemental chromium is involved in the control of type 2 diabetes. Individuals being treated for type 2 diabetes (180 men and women) were divided randomly into three groups and supplemented with: 1) placebo, 2) 1.92 micromol (100 microg) Cr as chromium picolinate two times per day, or 3) 9.6 micromol (500 microg) Cr two times per day. Subjects continued to take their normal medications and were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. HbA1c values improved significantly after 2 months in the group receiving 19.2 pmol (1,000 microg) Cr per day and was lower in both chromium groups after 4 months (placebo, 8.5 +/- 0.2%; 3.85 micromol Cr, 7.5 +/- 0.2%; 19.2 micromol Cr, 6.6 +/- 0.1%). Fasting glucose was lower in the 19.2-micromol group after 2 and 4 months (4-month values: placebo, 8.8 +/- 0.3 mmol/l; 19.2 micromol Cr, 7.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). Two-hour glucose values were also significantly lower for the subjects consuming 19.2 micromol supplemental Cr after both 2 and 4 months (4-month values: placebo, 12.3 +/- 0.4 mmo/l; 19.2 micromol Cr, 10.5 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). Fasting and 2-h insulin values decreased significantly in both groups receiving supplemental chromium after 2 and 4 months. Plasma total cholesterol also decreased after 4 months in the subjects receiving 19.2 micromol/day Cr. These data demonstrate that supplemental chromium had significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, glucose, insulin, and cholesterol variables in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The beneficial effects of chromium in individuals with diabetes were observed at levels higher than the upper limit of the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake.

Diabetes. 1997 Nov;46(11):1786-91.
Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, Polansky MM, Cheng N, Chi J, Feng J.
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.
PMID: 9356027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


The Role of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin in Diabetics
Chromium picolinate is a nutritional supplement that can help control diabetes. As the name suggests, it is a combination of two different substances: chromium and picolinate. Chromium is a mineral that helps to increase the efficiency of insulin. Insulin being the hormone that controls blood glucose or blood sugar levels. Picolinate is an amino acid derivative that allows the body to use chromium much more readily.

Scientists has known for a long time that chromium is a vital nutrient, but not until chromium was combined with picolinate was a truly effective way of providing supplemental chromium developed. In the body, chromium ( a mineral) takes the form of an ion, which is a particle with an electrical charge. This charge is repelled by the body's cells, making it difficult for the chromium to enter the cells. That's where the picolinate comes in, it is a chelator, a substance that can bind with an ion and neutralize its charge. The body's cells then are able to accept the chromium.

Chromium deficiency has been linked to diabetes. Studies have found chromium supplementation to be helpful for people with type 1 and type 11 diabetes, as well as for women with diabetes that occurs during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).

A study cited by the FDA was conducted by William Cefalu, MD, chief of the division of nutrition and chronic diseases at the Pennington BioMedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System. “Emerging research suggests that 200-1,000 mcg of chromium as chromium picolinate may play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism,” said Cefalu. Insulin resistance is an epidemic condition that dramatically increases risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, estimated to affect one in three Americans, according to The American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE).

Although the incidence of type II diabetes is increasing in record numbers, many people don’t yet have diabetes but are at high risk for developing it. Chromium supplements can help in these cases, too. A study directed by William Cefalu, M.D., monitored individuals at risk—people who were moderately obese and had a family history of diabetes. Some people received a placebo; others, 1,000 mcg of chromium picolinate daily. After four months of treatment with chromium, insulin resistance was reduced by 40 percent.[iv] Chromium supplements, therefore, help reverse the underlying disease process that leads to type II diabetes. In other words, they help both prevent and reverse Type II diabetes.

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